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Frank D. France V. Scholes 63 The Chapter Elections in L. Bloom and Lynn B. Mitchell 85 E. Lilliana Owens, S. Bloom Book Review : Hackett ed. Hammond The Beginnings of American Horses Jose D. Morris E. Opler The Cananea Incident. Herbert 0. Brayer Necrology. Charles, 6 ; necrology of grand- son, Bermudez, Enrique, Bernal, Capt. Roblea, review, Bourke, John G. George L, Canada Alamosa, et seq.

James H. Ill, review, Castillo, Diego del, 65, 74, 84 notes Castillo, Domingo, catzinas, 73, census of , 12; , 13 ceremonies, Indian, 73, , Chambers, Gen. Francisco Sanchez, Chaves, Francisco, J. Charles E. Juan de, 96 Ewing, R. Morgan, by L. White ed. Pike, 4 Granger, Gen. Guzman, Gov.

Hackett ed. Sam, 3 Humana, Gutierrez de, Hunt, Gov. Dana, obituaries, ; photo, 1 Johnston, Gen. Stephen W. Joseph H. John B. Juan, 65, 76, 82, 88, 93 Mansos, 87, 93 note, manias, 67, 72, 80, 82 Manzanares, Antonio, 6 Marcy, R. Nelson A. John, 4, Murphy, L. Dionisio de, 63 et seq. Francisco, 79 Perico, Apache leader, , , , , Pfeiffer, A.

Pontifica Americana. San Juan, 12, San Juan de los Jemez, , , San Lazaro, 87 San Lucas, Fray Diego de, 92 note, San Luis valley, 61, , , San Marcos, 93 note, San Xavier del Bac, Sanchez de Tagle, Isidoro, Sandia, 88 note, , , , , Sandoval, Francisco, 7 Santa Ana, 87, , , Santa Ana, Mexico, , , Santa Clara, 11, 87 Santa Fe, , , 28, 52, 54, , 74, , 84, 88, 98, , , , , , , , , , , , , ; mission, , et seq.

Lowell Tigua, et seq. Lew, 11, , Walter, P. John M. Euro- pean Travel Journal of Lewis H. Mor- gan, review, Whiting, Maj. Charles J. I-II are out of print in part. Address business communications to Mr. JOHN B. Article 2. Objects and Operation. The objects of the Society shall be, in general, the promotion of historical studies; and in particular, the discovery, collection, preservation, and publication of historical ma- terial, especially such as relates to New Mexico.

Article 3. Persons recommended by the Executive Council and elected by the Society may become members. Members who show, by published work, special aptitude for historical investigation may become Fellows. Immedi- ately following the adoption of this Constitution, the Executive Council shall elect five Fellows, and the body thus created may there- after elect additional Fellows on the nomination of the Executive Council.

The number of Fellows shall never exceed twenty-five. In addition to life members of the Historical Society of New Mexico at the date of the adoption hereof, such other benefactors of the Society as shall pay into its treasury at one time the sum of fifty dollars, or shall present to the Society an equivalent in books, manuscripts, portraits, or other acceptable material of an historic nature, may upon recommendation by the Executive Council and election by the Society, be classed as Life Members.

Persons who have rendered emi- nent service to New Mexico and others who have, by published work, contributed to the historical literature of New Mexico or the South- west, may become Honorary Life Members upon being recommended by the Executive Council and elected by the Society.

Article 4. The elective officers of the Society shall be a president, two vice-presidents, a corresponding secretary and treas- urer, and a recording secretary; and these five officers shall constitute the Executive Council with full administrative powers. Officers shall qualify on January 1st following their election, and shall hold office for the term of two years and until their successors shall have been elected and qualified.

Article 5. At the October meeting of each odd-numbered year, a nominating committee shall be named by the president of the Society and such committee shall make its report to the Society at the November meeting. Nominations may be made from the floor and the Society shall, in open meeting, proceed to elect its officers by ballot, those nominees receiving a majority of the votes cast for the respective offices to be declared elected.

Article 6. Article 7. All publications of the Society and the selec- tion and editing of matter for publication shall be under the direction and control of the Executive Council. Article 8. Monthly meetings of the Society shall be held at the rooms of the Society on the third Tuesday of each month at eight P.

The Executive Council shall meet at any time upon call of the President or of three of its members. Article 9. Seven members of the Society and three mem- bers of the Executive Council, shall constitute quorums. Article Amendments to this constitution shall be- come operative after being recommended by the Executive Council and approved by two-thirds of the members present and voting at any regular monthly meeting; provided, that notice of the proposed amendment shall have been given at a regular meeting of the Society, at least four weeks prior to the meeting when such proposed amend- ment is passed upon by the Society.

Students and friends of Southwestern History are cordially in- vited to become members. Applications should be addressed to the corresponding secretary, Lansing B. Bloom, University of New Mexico. Albuquerque, New Mexico. The cutting edge of the Anglo-American frontier was sharp along the Mis- souri line, which for economic and geographic reasons was the base for the advance into the New Mexico area.

The peopling of Missouri in frontier days was principally from the older frontier immediately behind it : namely, Kentucky and Tennessee. Among them were James Magoffin, Francis P. Field and a host of others. Some went to New Mexico direct, others after having spent some time in Missouri, Texas, or some other adjacent fron- tier area. See Hattie H. As for the details of his life story they may be found in the memoir itself.

Washington and lived in New Mexico from that day until his death on July 21, He was active and important in public life as one of the lesser lights who played their part in the develop- ment of New Mexico during the first four decades under the rule of the United States. Ellison's brief manuscript is important because of the interesting sidelights it brings out in connection with his journey from Kentucky to New Mexico, the story of the American occupation, New Mexico political history from to , and some of the personalities involved, and the lengthy first-hand description of the Santa Fe archives and the Pile incident.

The memoir was utilized by Bancroft in his History of Arizona and New Mexico, 3 and in some places much of it was incorporated into his work. It seems that it was written at Bancroft's request during the time that the latter was gathering materials for his history. Bancroft has the fol- lowing to say of Ellison and his memoir : "Samuel Ellison, territorial librarian, has given me important aid in my re- searches, and has been named often in this volume.

His History of N. Reached Houston in Sept. Judge Ellison is Swede on his father's side and German on his mother's. Sam Houston was then president and Hockley was secy, of war. The place was called Houston at that time. It was the head of navigation at the Buffalo bayou.

Resided there till ' Sidney Johnston was then com. Ellison was an officer till '39 about which time Austin was established. A number of Ellisons appear in the Kentucky records for the decade of the 's and the early decades of the nineteenth century, but I have not been able to find any clear link between any of them and the Samuel Ellison of this memoir.

It is quite probable, however, that his parents were originally from Pennsylvania, the source of origin of some of the Kentucky Ellisons, including a Samuel Ellison and his wife, Rachel, both of Philadelphia, who bought land in Bourbon County on August 22, Johnston became commander of the army of Texas January 31, This appointment aroused the jealousy of Felix Houston, who challenged Johnston to a duel and seriously wounded him.

Austin was chosen as the capital of the Republic of Texas in Cook [sic] , 9 and was abandoned in the spring of '40, when the command returned to Austin, and on the reduction of the army was mustered out of service, and from that time to '41 during '40 and '41 acted as deputy sheriff at San Antonio. During the year he was at Austin at the time Wm. Taylor's command after the fight at La Palma. Washington's command, who came from Monterey to Santa Fe, and Ellison came with him.

Washington left Monterey with his command, men, on the 26th of July, At Chihuahua Maj. Ellison continued here as quar. John Munroe, the then civil and military commandante of New Mexico. Remained such till '51, when the territorial gov.

Calhoun died on his way to the 9. George W. James S. Calhoun, governor of New Mexico, Carr Lane 13 for whom Ellison acted as secy. Kearny took possession in Aug. It was repre- sented after the war, and [after] slavery had been abolished, that [many were in] the condition of peons, Mexican serv- ants and Pueblo Indians, and Indians taken captive or pur- chased from wild tribes and held as slaves.

June, Governor from to David Meriwether, governor Governor Ellison held this post from to , and from to Bancroft, op. Ritch, ed. On October 4, , Ellison was commissioned a notary public for Santa F6 county.

Original commission in possession of the editor. See Ritch, op. The same authority, p. Ellison was territorial librarian until They were then as much an article of trade as a horse or a sheep. On his arrival at Santa Fe the 10th of Oct. Washington's men and army followers numbered about that is, what Washington brought and Maj. Bell was capt. Washington re- lieved Bell who was afterward stationed at Taos and was transferred in '50 to Ft.

Washington acted as civil and military gov. There was a remarkable good police here under Bell's adm. The leading men of the territory in were at Santa Fe Donacinio [sic] 20 Vigil, who was appointed Sec'y ter. Bent was appointed Gov. Miguel E. Pino was connected under the Mex.

The vicar Felipe Ortiz was considered the leading man in the political and civil depart- ments of the city and county of Santa Fe. In Mora. Jose Maria Valdez, and Vigil. In Rio Arriba Co. Tomas C. In Bernalillo Co. In Valencia Co. Antonio Jose Otero appointed judge of the 3d judicial district by Gen. In Taos Charles Beaubien was appointed judge of the 2d judicial dist.

Another leading man in Valencia Co. Antonio Luna; and Socoro [sic] 22 Co. In Don [sic] 23 Ana Co. These were the political force of the country at that time, and down to some of them later. San Francisco. Was the best mathematician in the army, as well as the ugliest looking man. A whig in politics. A very determined man in all his acts and doings. He said he wouldn't live in a country [where is snowed] in Nov.

He arrived in Nov. He was relieved by Col. Calhoun had been consul to Habana for many years, was sent out here as Indian agt. Had ability, was a politician by profession, was very popular and very intemperate. Nothing particular during his adm. He ran for delegate of the territory against Padre Jose Manuel Gallegos who, that is the latter, on a contest for the seat was declared to be elected, on the ground that the Pueblo Indians had no right to vote. Including the vote of the Pueblo Inds.

Carr Lane would have been elected, but without that vote Gallegos was declared elected by votes. Gallegos was a man of ability, suspended by Archbishop Lamy for concubinage. During the adm. Carr Lane, supt. Affairs as well as gov. Merri wether gov. Ind aff. During Merriwether's adm. Collins assumed the office of Supt. Miguel A. When John S. Watts was delegate in Cong. The first legislature was the best the territory has ever had, the best material of Mexicans and the best Americans the territory could produce, and that you can see from the laws of The second legislature was fair, but they have been gradually going down in quality.

Up to they were considered to be very fair men. Before that time bribery, since then so common, was unheard of. Bribery was first resorted to support the act of Gen. A memorial was got up centurring [sic] the act, to defeat which money was used. Was highly esteemed by the people of the territory. Henry Connelly was of a visionary, romantic, poetic turn, could quote John Gilpin in one breath.

He was tol- erated because he was appointed from the territory. Still he was a good man. He was from Kentucky. He went to Valverde, witnessed the fight between Canby and the Texans ; after Canby was whipped he, the gov. When he went to Valverde he left Ellison in charge of the territory. There was no secretary here at that time. After the Texans had been whipped out he [Connelly] returned and took charge of his offices.

Sibley drove Slough back about two Conejos, Colorado. It has since been kept up by exchanges. Up to fragmentary statements in regard to the establishment of priests in the missions are among the archives. Under the adm. Pile 27 many of the archives were sold to merchants and grocers for wrapping paper, and only about one-fourth recovered. There was an or- ganized search made for them by the citizens, who waited on the gov.

Pile graduated as a Methodist preacher, went into the army, commanded a regiment, and was sent out here as governor to complete his education. He was a very weak man intellectually and every other way. If he had any intellect at all it did not run in the right groove.

He was up to all sorts of chicanery, was not honest, and if it had been any other country he would have been driven out of the country. The deed of vandalism was found out the day after it was done, when some of the citizens met and Then he sent out the librarian Bond 28 and had them brought back, a cartload of them, and dumped into the back room.

Others bought smaller portions. The gov. Wallace employed Ellison to gather them up and place them in a room adjoining his parlor. After that they were placed in the charge of Ellison as librarian. Wallace was an excellent governor, a man of intellect, positive, and popular.

It is not the law but the custom. There is a territorial law requiring all proceedings of all courts to be kept in Eng. There is a very large collection of archives in the Indian Pueblo of Santa Clara, in the hands of the Indians, boxed up. They say they have had them from time immemorial They consist of certificates of baptism, marriages, funerals, no court or war proceedings.

Ira M. Bond was territorial librarian for the same period during which Pile was governor. For further accounts of the destruction of the archives see Bancroft, op. Ellison's statement here clearly demolishes Twitchell's weak defense of Pile. Somebody says there are some at Socorro, and elsewhere.

In fact, prob- ably every Pueblo has some. These are diaries of different gov- ernors and captain generals in relation to their operations against the Pueblo Indians and wild tribes of the "provinces and kingdom of New Mexico. These are contained in five of the boxes, well arranged in these 5 boxes chronologically. In these boxes are Indian wars and campaigns. Then there are charges against the different governors one against another, for peculation.

Also a few documents relative to the assassination of Gov. Perez in , Armijo assuming the reins of gov. Also the erection of the fort in where the present Fort Marcy now stands. There is also a pay roll dated May 1 giving what purports to be a complete census of the province at that time.

The journal of Vargas appears to have been in one vol. It begins about p. This he did to avoid risk of losing the original on the road. He assigns that as a reason. He also speaks of the location of silver and gold mines, of his then working three silver mines. Also the location of a quicksilver mine, situated on the west bank of the Colorado of the West.

The harmony of views be- tween the military and Indian officials was further strength- ened by a clearer definition of their respective jurisdictions, a troublesome question that had persistently raised its head from the outbreak of the Navaho war in The superin- tendent and agents were advised that where Indians are hostile, the civil authority is to be held in abeyance until the measures taken by the military authorities for quelling the put- break have been concluded ; that where the Indians are generally quiet and peaceable, but require prompt action to quell disorders among them- selves, or to prevent unlawful interference of white persons with them, the military are to ren- der assistance when appealed to by the agents; and at all other times the military are not to inter- fere with the civil control of the Indians.

The current arrangement, therefore, was continued for the time being : for dispensing funds for clothing, implements, and the purchase of sheep they were under the control of the agent; for subsistence and general control they continued as prisoners of war under the military.

The future of the Navaho loomed as a great question mark to those in posi- tions of responsibility, and the seed of discord planted through Steck bore abundant fruit in the next three years. In the fall of the commissioner of Indian affairs wrote that In regard to the Navajoes.

This acceptance of the statics quo illustrated the difficulty of the problem ; however, it was only a temporary acceptance, since measures had already been taken along two lines to solve it : a congressional investigation had been instituted in the spring and a special investigator for the Indian bureau had been appointed in the summer.

Under a joint resolution of March 3, , a committee of seven was appointed to inquire into the condition of the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi. They collected their New Mexico data during the summer, and it was far from being clear and conclusive. Those who testi- fied at the hearing agreed that a reservation removed from the settlements and protected by a military force was the sine qua non. In the second place, the Navaho should be made self-supporting by being induced to cultivate the soil after the example of the Pueblo Indians.

This idea was strengthened by the fact that they had raised some crops before their removal to the Bosque Redondo. But where the reservation should be located was the moot point. Furthermore, the troops could not keep them on the reservation, and if they were allowed to scatter, trouble would develop with the New Mexicans as formerly.

This argument was countered by the proposal that the Navaho should be located in several groups or pueblos in various parts of their old country which would make it possible for a few troops to keep them on their reservations. Additional arguments for the Bosque Redondo were that it contained good farm land and that the presence of the Navaho there was a fait accompli and should be continued. Various other points were advanced pro and con: it was cheaper to feed them at the Bosque Redondo than to fight them in their own country; fewer troops were required to control them; a grazing country in northwestern New Mexico had been opened to the white man ; and the route to Arizona was safe ; on the contrary there was a scarcity of wood around Fort Sumner, the country belonged to the Comanche, the area of farm land was insufficient, the Navaho were self-supporting in their own country, there were no mines to attract the whites into the northwest, the Navaho and Apache could not live together, and the Bosque Redondo entailed immense cost to the government.

He had formed his opinion about placing Indians on reservations which will be Islands: and as time elapses and the race dies out, these Islands may become less and less, until finally, the great sea [of white men] will engulf them one after another until they become known only in history, and at length are blotted out, of even that, forever.

The committee, however, did not decide the issue. The second line of inquiry into the situation in New Mexico was due to the unsatisfactory condition in the Indian service. The appointment of Delgado as superintendent had been looked upon with misgivings by some of the citizens in the Territory. Neither he nor three of the new agents could keep their accounts or report to their superiors in the English language.

This handicap made necessary the em- ployment of assistants, sometimes in relation to business of a confidential nature. The importance of party politics could hardly permit such weak points on the battle front. As the chief justice of the Territory pointed out, "Much, therefore will rest upon the integrity and good faith of the clerks or friends who may be trusted in a confidential relation with the officers in this portion of the Indian affairs.

Graves in August, , as com- missioner and special agent to investigate the general situa- tion in the superintendency. He was instructed to report on the sufficiency of the Bosque Redondo as a reservation for both the Navaho and Apache, the cost of surveying the res- ervation for the purpose of allotting the land in severalty, the character of the personnel in the Indian service, and the practice of slavery.

The expenditure of the congressional appropriation of March, , was placed in his hands. A, Annual Report, , p. The commissions for the new agents appointed under Belgrade were issued through the chief justice of the Territory because the Washington office lacked definite informa- tion as to whether the new superintendent had taken office.

LB 77, p. He philosophised about the status of the Indians, condemned the practice of slavery or peonage, recommended a shakeup in the service, and favored the Carleton policy of keeping the Navaho at the Bosque Redondo. His sympathies were distinctly with the Indians, but he did not accord them a particularly favorable place in the affairs of this world. He thought the star of the red man was setting while that of the white man was rising.

God had so willed, and history could prove, That the Indian under an all wise dispensation of Providence was created for a specific purpose, should mark his gradual decline seems evident from their past history. The practice of enslaving Indian captives in New Mex- ico was almost as old as the length of the white man's occu- pation. Their treatment varied with the owners; some were occasionally abused, others were adopted and treated as members of the family.

The custom had long been recog- nized as one of the chief causes of the chronic warfare with the Navaho. But the situation was 8. Graves, Report, No. President Johnson issued an order on June 9, , for the suppression of the practice, and the Freedmen's Bureau had been approached without success to take charge of the captives.

The removal of Delgado had been urged upon the commissioner of Indian affairs by Delegate Francisco J. Chaves, on the ground of "total incapacity" to perform his work. This charge must be discounted a bit because Chaves and Delgado were on opposite sides of the political fence, but in addition to the language handicap, other grounds were found for Cooley to recommend that the superintendency be placed in the hands of Governor Mitchell.

Valkenburg to O. In Tomas Heredias v. Jose Maria Garcia, January, , the Territorial Supreme Court held that a contract under the territorial "Master and Servant" law was involuntary servitude and therefore null and void. The Federal Grand Jury failed to indict a number of persons accused of holding Navaho in bondage in the summer of This was a reasonable solution to the problem, and many of the "captives" remained.

Salazar of the Ute agency was a zealous official but lacked judgment and capacity. The Mexican agents in general had friends and relatives who "hang on to the agency" and who appropri- ated the Indian goods. Theodore H. Dodd of the Navaho agency was rated as competent. The traditional hostility with the Indians was pointed out as a bar to the use of Mexicans as agents.

He condemned the practice of political appointments, and, with the instinct of the reformer, he recommended permanent tenure on good behavior and sala- ries adequate to attract competent men. In short, the prisoners should not be returned to their former homes.

Their fear of dwindling away in their new environment was merely a superstition. In attributing the visitations of measles to the unhealthy location they failed to recognize that epidemics of that sort were "the divine visitation of God for his own good purpose. Colonel A. Baldwin Nor- ton was commissioned superintendent in February, Before the new incumbent arrived, Ar- chuleta was suspended in April on the ground of misconduct in office, 18 and Dodd was reaffirmed in May as agent to the Navaho.

Dodd had come to New Mexico with Doolittle in the summer of as agent for the Navaho, but his commis- sion had been withheld temporarily because he disobeyed instructions to visit Washington before proceeding to the scene of his work.

Carleton was troubled at that time by the usual delay in forwarding goods for his charges. He therefore sent Dodd back East "to see personally after these important matters in which the health and comfort of 9, Indians entirely dependent upon the Government for everything are concerned.

The question of transferring the Indians to the con- trol of the department of the interior was debated, the mili- tary advocated their removal to the Indian Territory, and internal affairs on the reservation went from bad to worse. Occasionally an agent in New Mexico believed that he could be removed only by the officer who signed his commission, the President of the United States.

Delgado probably acted under that theory. Cooley to General Geo. Carleton to C. Since the army estimates for the year were not based on the continuation of this extraordinary expense, the commissary general of subsistence, A. Eaton, raised the issue of transferring the Navaho to the civil depart- ment. Secretary Harlan was not adverse, of course, to the plan. The main plea for not assuming responsibility when the first party of captives arrived in September , had been the lack of money to provide food for them.

The rem- edy for that difficulty simply lay in congress appropriating the necessary funds and having the civil officials do the spending. The military fed the captives, stood guard, and super- intended the farming operations; the Indian bureau provided clothing and equipment. The Bosque Redondo was not a military reservation, but was officially a reservation for Indians. In cabinet discussion, Secretary Stanton urged that the prisoners be transferred to the control of the department of interior on the grounds that they would then be under the proper jurisdiction, the military could resume their primary duties, and stricter accounting and economy could be enforced.

Any requisitions that the agent might make on the army subsistence department could be paid for. This meant a return to the usual condition where the mili- tary aided the Indian service in emergencies, with the ex- pectation of being reimbursed. The commissioner of Indian affairs heartily concurred in the opinion of the secretary of Superintendent Norton was absent from New Mexico for several months because of illness and no one was officially designated to act in behalf of the civil department.

Getty, was not aware of the existence of the order of December 31, When he discovered it on September 30, the final step was delayed until the next regular date for issuing rations. Whiting and the military were finally relieved of their four year burden. Stanton to O. The proposal was often advanced to transfer the control of Indian affairs to the Department of War. An amendment to the Indian Appropriation bill to that effect was defeated in the Senate by a vote of , February, Friction between the military and civil officials, dishonesty in the Indian service, and intermittent Indian hostilities were among the reasons advanced for the change.

The Territories were opposed to this move, probably because it meant loss of political patronage and opportunities to trade with the Indians. See Cong. Globe, 39 Cong. Carleton was relieved from his command in New Mexico in September, , and succeeded by General George Sykes, who in turn was succeeded by Getty.

Crocker was transferred to the army of the Cumberland, March, Brevet- Major Henry B. Bristol had been post commander under Crocker and was trans- ferred to New York, October, The star of Carleton had set and his experiment in civilizing the Navaho on the Bosque Redondo reservation was doomed. Despite his early irritation at the failure of Steck to take care of the prisoners, he now feared that the transfer of control would result "in great injury to, if not in the positive fail- ure of, the important measure of fixing forever the Navajo tribe of Indians upon a reservation.

In addition to the controversy between Steck and Carle- ton, there were four main reasons for the failure of the policy of locating the Navaho on the banks of the Pecos: insufficient wood for fuel, crop failures, inadequate finan- cial support, and hostility of the Comanche Indians.

The mesquite had been relied upon as the fuel supply, but for 7, or more users it proved to be insufficient. This pos- During the absence of Norton in the spring of , the commissioner of Indian affairs had recommended that a special agent be appointed to investigate the prob- lem of feeding the Navaho.

Overruled quite properly by the secretary of interior as unnecessary, Taylor appealed directly to the President without result. In com- plaining of the action of his superior, he stated that "it would have been better for the service that such precedents should have been earlier established, as Special Agents in cases far less urgent, and at large salaries have been very recently and from time to time appointed within the few months during the administration of the present secre- tary.

Carleton to A. From December 7, , to April 30, , the Indians, under military super- vision, planted 12, trees. By , the Indians were travel- ing five to eighteen miles away to secure fuel, carrying it home on their backs. A one "man" load lasted but a short time during the cold months ; consequently, it was a constant race to secure enough fuel to prevent suffering from the cold and even freezing to death.

The Navaho complained about this situation and requested animal transportation to better enable them to cope with the problem ; the situation became increasingly serious to the point that the superin- tendent finally wrote: "God knows what these indians will do for fuel this winter God only knows It becomes scarcer and farther off daily.

The first season the corn crop was almost entirely destroyed by worms, and grasshoppers occasionally bothered the other crops. Some of the land was too alkaline for cultivation. Hailstorms at times and insufficient water added to the troubles. The lack of water was partly due to the difficulty of turning the river into the irrigation ditches, the sandy bottom of the Pecos being a treacherous foundation for a I believe.

Globe, 40 Cong. This opinion can hardly be accepted at face value. The villages in the mountains had access to abundant fuel, and the settlers in the Rio Grande valley though less favorably situated for fuel were comfortably housed in adobe structures for protection against the cold. In place of employing a sufficient num- ber of experienced farmers to direct the labor of the hundreds of Indian workers, a military officer was detailed to superintend the work. This proved to be unsatisfactory, either because of his lack of experience for such work or because of a lack of interest; and, of course, some Navaho were not inclined to work.

To solve this difficulty, Dodd recommended in the summer of , that the farm land be divided into ten acre plots with a practical farmer and assistant in charge of each division. The Indians who de- sired to work would be settled on the edge of these plots with a permanent home and personal garden plot.

This proposal was in keeping with the current idea of allotting the land in severalty. This farm was divided into three sec- tions, and each section was subdivided into ten- acre fields. Over each of the three divisions a non- commissioned officer, with four private soldiers as assistants, acted as superintendent, and eighteen Indians performed the labor ; the soldiers instruct- ing and assisting them. Lieutenant McDonald had entire control over all farming operations.

In spite of the efforts to make 3L Sykes to A. McClure also stated that the farm failed this season because of dryness, washing away of the Pecos banks and consequent scanty water in the aceguias, strong alkaline water and soil. The result was rather discouraging, he wrote, but had taught the Indians agriculture, a first lesson in civilization. This was a prime factor in keeping them on the reservation. As Carleton wrote, "The great magnet which really holds the Navajos fast to the Reservation is the food which they get once in two days.

They cluster around the commissariat like steel filings around a loadstone. The ration issued to the Navaho varied from three- quarters to one pound of meat per day for each person and a like amount of bread-stuff. The Indians were counted and ration cards issued as they filed through a gate into a corral. The cards at first were made of card-board. They were sometimes lost and often forged. Stamped metal slips were next used, but the clever Navaho craftsman made dies and again forged them.

At one time there were about 3, extra ration tickets in existence. The situation was finally changed by securing them from Washington with an intricate and special design that could not be copied. Instead of supplying the prisoners with flocks of sheep in place of those taken as part of the spoils of the roundup, cheap shoddy blankets, which provided but little warmth and were quickly worn out, were purchased in the East or Middle West and transported at considerable ex- pense to the reservation.

Sometimes they were picked to pieces and rewoven into a better article. In addition to the poor quality, there was a lack of quantity. Granting that congress was generous in appropriating money for clothing and farm implements, whether the whole of the proceeds Sykes to A. And, as a matter of fact, it was not. The Navaho had been located on the western edge of the Comanche country. These nomads Comanches had long been a source of trouble to the white man, especially along the Texas frontier, which was their special field for depredating.

They found a ready market for some of their spoils, particularly cattle, through trade with the New Mexicans in the eastern part of the Territory. Through this channel they received guns and ammunition, or hoop iron for making arrow heads, and sometimes whiskey. The trade assumed extensive proportions at times ; about traders were in the field in due to the practice of subletting licenses and the loose manner of issuing the permits.

It was suspected that some of them who did not favor the Bosque Redondo reservation incited the Comanche to attack their new neighbors. In the summer of , Norton revoked all permits for trading. This proved to be only a temporary measure. The following year he sought an agreement with the Comanche for the protection of the Navaho.

A conference was held in Santa Fe in September between representatives of the two groups, but it produced no results. Two months later, when Agent Labadie made a trip to the Texas Panhandle for another interview, "They indignantly refused to make any terms of peace with the Navajos, and manifested their natural Twenty years later it was written in regard to appropriations: "That the In- dians get but little of it, as a rule, is so notorious that it is a standing joke in this country.

At the time of capturing Peter Allison's train on the lower Cimarron Springs in , the Comanche boasted that they would kill Carleton for giving their lands to the Navaho. The use of the reservation had been severely criticised from the beginning of course, but in General Pope made a vigorous pro- posal that it be abandoned.

In his opinion it was a mistake to locate Indians on reservations in their own country be- cause of friction with the incoming tide of white immi- grants. This difficulty was illustrated, he thought, in the conflict of opinion that had raged around the Bosque Re- dondo.

He proposed that the Navaho be moved farther east to the Indian Territory or to some other permanent location in that general direction. This would result in reducing the cost of subsistence due to the shorter distance to the source of supplies, it would bring the Indians under a more civilizing influence, fewer troops would be required to guard them, and the frontier would be opened for settle- ment.

He considered the Bosque Redondo to be the best location at the time selected because it was the farthest point east that Carleton was then able to take his prisoners. The Bosque Redondo was a long way from their old home. However, this assault on the reserva- tion met with a cool reception in the department of interior, although it found a ready welcome in the ranks of the mili- tary.

General Sherman passed the responsibility for de- ciding the issue on to Washington with the remark, "This is a matter of some importance, and is most costly. I think we could better afford to send them to the 5th Avenue Hotel to board, at the cost of the U.

Bell, New Tracks in North America, p. The President instructed Secretary Browning to mature plans for disposal of the Navaho, to be carried out as soon as conditions would permit. The idea of seclusion from contact with the whites, so common at the time, influ- enced his opinion, and he recommended their removal to the Indian Territory, stipulating, however, that it should be done "with the consent of the removed.

The northern Indians were to be concentrated north of the Platte River. This scheme was designed to open the country between the two rivers to white travel and the construction of a transcontinental railway. John Ward, one-time agent for the Navaho under Collins, recom- mended that they be returned to their old home. A bi-weekly patrol between the posts would constitute a military barrier to restrict the Navaho west of the line and would prevent the illegal entry of white men into the Indian country.

A prime factor in his opinion was a supply of fuel. Cong, Globe, 40 Cong. They reiterated their complaints, making it clear that they were not satisfied with the Bosque Redondo. Events now began to move rapidly toward a crisis. That same month the Comanche raided and killed nine Navaho, besides capturing two women. The soldiers failed to catch the marauders, and the Navaho were not properly armed to punish them decisively.

This episode on top of their accumulated woes developed a strong spirit of unrest among them. A party estimated from to deserted the reservation on the 26th and 27th. Norton im- mediately sought permission from Washington to issue 4, Mexican blankets to quiet the others, a step that was promptly approved by wire.

He strongly favored the policy of removal : "Justice, human- ity, Christianity, and the welfare of the Indians. The safety of the whites, and the pecuniary interests of the government all demand the change. He analyzed the pro- posals of Ward and Getty.

The immediate pecuniary advantage of the suggestion of Ward was outweighed finally by the belief that the Fort Stanton area would make possible a much sought after goal; namely, the protection of the whites against the Indians for all future time because of its remoteness from the settlements, 46 a rather unsound argu- ment. The spirit of Carleton still hovered over the office of Indian affairs. Perhaps the Bosque Redondo experiment And by no means should the Navaho be allowed to return to their former homes where the old game of hide-and-seek with the military would have to be played again.

The "good of the Indians, the safety of the white settlers in their vicinity, and the general prosperity of the Territory. This view was clinched with the stock argu- ment that it was cheaper to feed them than to fight them.

The Navaho owning horses planned to steal away during the winter. In the month of January, , to were estimated to have left. Inspector-General Rosenthal to Captain Henry Davis. Globe, 40 cong. Marcy had been requested by Sherman to render a report on the country lying between the 98th and st parallels, the Canadian River on the north and the Red River on the south.

The Indians could become self-supporting- there within two or three years, he believed. Sherman doubted that a reservation in their old country could be permanent because of the rising tide of miners pushing into western Colorado and northwestern New Mexico ; so, "with the light now before me, I would prefer their removal to a point north of the Red River, west of the Chickasaw line and east and south of the Wichita mountains.

The two delegates left for the Territory in May with the idea in mind that there was no use in moving the Indians unless they were located east of the 98th parallel. But at Trinidad, Colorado, Sherman dis- patched a note to Getty to meet with them at Fort Sumner and "to bring with me [him] one or more who are familiar with the old Navajo Country, west of the Rio Grande.

Three propositions were laid before the Indians as the basis of the discussion : they could settle any- where as citizens in the Territory of New Mexico, remove to the region of the lower Canadian and Arkansas rivers, or discuss the advisability of returning to their old country. Thus, the librettist's financial involvement in the actual production of the opera was somewhat more arm's length than the other participants.

The owner of the theatre received a rental fee from the theatre manager impresario , and stood to gain every season his theatre was rented, independent of the success or number of productions. His only risk was the admittedly high risk of fire. The San Cassiano theatre burned in , and again in , it was rebuilt in ; the San Salvatore was built over a ruined theatre in and burned in , prompting the Vendramin family to renovate it into an opera theatre.

Nevertheless, the social advantage of being a theatre owner was significant in a city whose primary attraction was the opera. Providing one could afford the initial outlay of funds, theatre ownership was the safest way to profit from the opera. All the members of the company, organized as a sort of co-operative, were multi-tasking and assuming some of the considerable financial risk. Ellen Rosand points out that the price of producing opera began to rise quickly.

For example: in the total cost of a production at S. Salvatore was 62, Venetian lire, nearly twice that ofAntioco at S. Cassiano ten years earlier, which in turn was twice that of the second production at S. Cassiano in , where a small company of six, including the composer, librettist, and singers, all serving multiple functions, shouldered the entire responsibility of presenting La maga fulminata for 2, scudi or 19, Venetian lire Rosand , Salvatore, b.

Box fees were a safe source of income, being more or less independent of the quality of the show, and so quickly became the major source of income for Venetian operas. A theatrical box was considered an essential part of a good Venetian family's assets, as Ivanovich describes in chapter The leasing of the boxes provides the most secure income of every theatre.

There are at least one hundred of these, besides the various orders ofgalleries [boxes at the attic level];57 not all are equal in price, the latter being calculated on the basis of the order and number i. From the very beginning, theatre proprietors have customarily prac- tised two types of charges: first, a cash payment for each box this serves largely to cover construction costs, and is the principal reason for the ease and rapidity with which the construction of a number of theatres has been possible ; second, an agreed annual rent paid every year in which there is an opera season only in this way does the said payment correspond both to the expenses incurred by the theatre and the comfort and convenience enjoyed by the box.

The right acquired by the possessor of the box is that of retaining it on his account, without the option of re-letting it to others; he may make use of it for his own purposes and lend it out, as he likes There are also various boxes at ground level and gallery level, which, by virtue of their inferior or inconvenient position, are not all rented out at the beginning, but rather on a nightly or annual basis at the free discretion of the theatre proprietor, who thus attempts to procure for himself the greatest possible advantage.

This method continues to be a system used for box seating at sporting events in major stadiums throughout North America, and in Italy and much of the rest of Europe for buying box seats at the opera. Unfortunately, exactly when this practice began is unclear, because the very existence of boxes in the early years is in doubt.

Nino Pirrotta , 59 questioned the accepted view that Venetian theatre design was influenced in all cases by the Teatro Farnese in Padua, in which there were: five rows of galleries circled all around, one above the other, with parapets of marble balusters; the spaces, large enough to accommodate sixteen spectators each The two highest and most distant rows were filled with common citizens; on the third sat the students and foreign nobility; the second, as the more worthy place, was for the rectors and the Venetian noblemen; and in the first there were the gentlewomen and the principal gentlemen of the court.

Translation from Rosand , While this evidence is not entirely conclusive, it does throw into question whether box fundraising began with the first commercial opera productions. In any case, once there were boxes, there was a demand for the income from them from the beginning of this practice.

The Teatro S S Giovanni e Paolo is believed to have had seventy-seven boxes in four rows from the s until the s when the boxes were re-arranged into five rows of twenty-nine, or Mancini, Murara, and Povoledo , In , when the company headed by Marco Faustini was producing opera , the Teatro San Apollinare had three rows of fifteen or sixteen boxes, making forty-eight boxes, renting for twenty ducats per year. An income of ducats from this single source is particularly impressive because Giovanni Faustini had initially rented the San Apollinare theatre for only 60 ducats per year for three years with an extension of an additional three years , on condition that he turn it into a theatre.

Faustini apparently took many of the moveable items sets, lights, seating and so forth from San Apollinare with him to San Cassiano, but Bianconi and Walker imply that the profits from the box rentals at the San Cassiano were eroded by the obligation to ready the theatre for performance, which involved a significant expense.

Owned by the Tron brothers, it was leased to only Marco Faustini for five years, at eight hundred ducats per year, plus forty ducats for a storage house near the theatre. Faustini was the proprietor of ninety-two of the ninety-eight boxes the remain- ing six were reserved by the Tron family. He rented these boxes for twenty- five ducats per year in , using the profits to renovate the theatre. In , the next year for which there are figures available, the boxes rented, again, for twenty-five ducats per year appendix 1.

In the Venetian economic model for operas, the impresario assumed the largest financial risk. According to Bianconi , : "advance letting of boxes for the entire season provide[d] a sizeable portion of the liquid capital required for investment in the operatic productions themselves. In chapter 13, Ivanovich outlines the expenses "il Teatro" the impresario had to pay.

There is some question as to whether those involved in Venetian opera of the s and s even knew about the Florentine, Roman or Mantuan courtly opera experiments other than Mon- teverdi, who obviously must have , but the courtly opera model was obviously used for at least some elements of the operatic business design. For the first two commercial operas, Andromeda and La maga fulminata souvenir librettos were published by Antonio Bariletti in May 6, , several months after it had closed in the case of Andromeda, and by Ferrari on February 6, , while it was still running, in the case of La maga fulminata , despite the fact that there was no immediately apparent publicity reason to publish a libretto after an opera had closed, at least none that would benefit the production.

That is, it could not attract an audience to see the show if it was closed. In the case of Andromeda, at least, this was the case. The scenario to La maga fulminata is less clearly inspired by the earlier courtly operas, because the libretto was made available before the opera closed, suggesting that it might have been sold during the performance, to be read during the show.

It is well known that words combined with music are less well understood as narrative than words on their own, and the plot was clearly important to the impresarios, since composers were not treated with the same respect as librettists. Composers were artisans while librettists, especially in the early years of opera production in Venice, were nobles, aristocrats or at least upper middle class scholars, often associated with influential accademias like the Incogniti, Instabile or the Imperfetti, while musicians were either self-supporting or associated with the church.

Willem Janszoon Blaeu's improvement to the printing press a counterweight to the platen or metal print plate reduced the work needed to operate the machine by half, making printing suddenly much more financially feasible for publicity purposes. With this increase in the speed of printing came an increase in printed material, which in turn created an increased number of people who could read. Venice had been the world leader in printing since the beginning of the sixteenth century and was well positioned to take advantage of this increase in the literacy rate.

It was neither Ferrari nor Manelli however, but the publisher Antonio Bariletti who first created publicity mate- rials with the help of the city's forty or fifty printing presses; his "spin" took the form of published librettos, and shortly others introduced a new type of publication called a scenario. A scenario, on the other hand is usually one duodecimo fascicle i.

It is, in short, a publicity document, similar in style to a playbill for a modern opera except that it was handed out to encourage people to go to the opera and not once they were already there. In the absence of documentary evidence of the reaction to this innovation, it is unclear whether this publication Dair Angelo were associated with the Accademia degli Imperfetti, while Giacinto Andrea Cicognini was in the Accademia dei Instabile.

Cristoforo Ivanovich was associated with the Accademia dei Concordi as well as San Marco, and Giovanni Faustini seems to have been the only librettist who can be shown to have earned his living by writing. On the other hand, the number of musicians who were employed by San Marco is nearly as many: composers associated with San Marco were Francesco Manelli singer , Francesco Cavalli maestro di cappella , Claudio Monteverdi maestro di cappella , Giovanni Rovetta maestro di cappella , Antonio Sartorio vice-maestro di cappella , Pietro Andrea Ziani organist , Legrenzi vice-maestro di cappella.

Benedetto Ferrari was an independent musician, librettist and impresario employed in various courts in Parma, Modena and Rome throughout his career, while Francesco Sacrati, from Parma, was an independent musician and an impresario, and Antonio Cesti was a priest until , and a famous singer. There is no record of an opera composer being a member of an accademia until the eighteenth century. By there were only about 40 printers left in Venice, as the industry had moved to the Low Countries, according to Logan , Strozzi recognized the importance of providing the public with advance publicity in order to make his work a critical and financial success Rosand , Using various lures, including the fame of its composer, Francesco Manelli, who had written music for Andromeda, and the fact that it was the inaugural opera for the new theatre S S Giovanni e Paolo, Strozzi published his scenario over a month before the opera opened.

A thirty-three-page volume on low-quality paper, clearly designed as a dispos- able document, La Delia's scenario consisted of a synopsis and a running description of the action, a preface by the author, and even an advertisement for the next production, Ferrari's Armida. The next scenario that appeared in Venice was printed only two months later, by Strozzi's competition. Francesco Cavalli's new company at the San Cas- siano theatre seems to have imitated Giulio Strozzi's method for La Delia producing a similar, but less effective scenario for their opera, Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo by Orazio Persiani and Cavalli.

Although it provides important information such as the name of the venue, the composer, and some informa- tion about the performers, it does not boast about the opera's qualities nearly the way Strozzi's does. Nevertheless, for the next few years, the scenario was a major form of publicity for Venetian opera.

There were published scenarios for most Venetian operas in the s and s. The libretto was usually published by the librettist, but nearly half of the scenarios do not even mention the librettist's name on the title page, but prominently feature the theatre or its owner's name. Scenarios from about twenty early operas have survived see appendix 3 for Rosand's list of Venetian opera scenarios. Because of the disposable nature of the document, many more were probably destroyed, making it difficult to be able to say categorically when they went out of fashion.

Although it had become standard practice to issue librettos before the opera opened, by the middle of the s, they became increasingly useful as publicity documents when opera began to receive press coverage in the s. As Rosand points out, librettos often explained the plot in the same way scenarios had, apparently making them obsolete. For each individual opera, this system of publicity was very effective, but in terms of creating a climate of wonder about the entire city of Venice and the industry of Venetian opera, it was necessary for news to travel to the rest of zyxwvutsrq 67 Rosand , notes: " Venice had a reputation as an exciting tourist destination, fostering a mystique like few other cities in Europe, or indeed the world.

In addition, Venice was the centre for European diplomacy and business as well as its first secular tourist destina- tion, attracting thousands of wealthy English, French, German and Dutch visitors every year to Carnevale. During the Thirty Years' War ca. A number of opera audience members were foreign, and so it seems clear that the mail was a useful tool for a producer. This publication was called the Cannocchiale per la finta pazza. He writes: I considered these days, that Sig.

Giulio Strozzi's composition of the Finta pazza, the machines of Sig. Iacomo Torelli, and the music woven for them by Sig. Francesco Sacrati were a sky worthy of being contemplated by everyone, but so far from so many people that is would diminish the value for the many who came to view so noble an undertaking if one did not make it possible for everyone to see and admire it; the scenario was printed, and also the libretto, but the machines and the costumes and the actions remained farfromthe view of the audience, and thus unappreciated.

Iacomo Torelli, e la Musica orditavi sopra dal Sig. Transi, by the author of this article. Thezyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcb Cannocchiale devotes a large amount of space to discussing audience reaction, suggesting that many attended three and four times,71 and that they sometimes even forgot they were in Venice because of the excellence of the scenic painting.

Nor did the long period between the end of Carnival and Easter lessen the desire on the city to see such an applauded work again, even though familiarity normally breeds contempt; and thus it was necessary to reopen the theater and perform it a number of times, which further spread the fame of this delightful spectacle to the cities of Italy and beyond, and was the reason that, quite exceptionally, Venice wasfilledten days early with the crowds that normally gather for the devotions and ceremonies of Ascension Day.

Bellerofonte had both a scenario and a libretto published beforehand. The third publication, similar to thezyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcb Cannocchiale per la finta pazza, was a "deluxe commemorative quarto volume" Rosand , published apparently under the instructions of Torelli. Torelli, the machine designer, issued a commemorative volume in enti- tled Apparati scenici per lo Teatro Novissimo di Venetia nelVanno d'inventione e cura di Iacomo Torelli di Fano. Although it does not refer to any specific opera, there are a large number of references to this work, even though it was released on January 24, , almost a year after Venere gelosa closed.

In order for these commemorative volumes to have currency in the rest of Europe, they had to travel by post. By the s, there was a regular mail route from Amsterdam, through Frankfurt-am-Main, Augsburg, Innsbruck, Trento and Venice as well as several other places in between. The possibility of reaching multiple readers began with the improvement of the printing press in the s. By a strange twist of fate, this new means of reaching a larger audience manifested in the inexpensive avviso, or tabloid, came into being because of the efficiency of the Inquisitori di Stato, the Venetian government's secret police.

C, La carrozza di Augusta aveva due percorsi stradali da effettuare: uno quello preferito per i passaggeri andava da Venezia - Padova - Vicenza - Verona - Trento - Bolzano - Innsbruck, l'altro era scelto quando il viaggio riguardava le merci andava da Venezia - Treviso - Castelfranco Veneto - Bassano - Borgo qui si univa alia strada per Trento ed il viaggio riprendeva la via originaria.

In totale sono 19 giorni. Initially, avvisi were hand-written documents, but the informants recognised the potential profitabil- ity of information and soon took advantage of Venice's printing presses to make multiple copies of their reports. As early as , Venetian printers were selling these avvisi on the Rialto Bridge for the low price of one "gazeta" a silver coin worth two soldi.

The term gazette, used by modern newspapers is a reference to the coin that purchased an avviso. Avviso readers were unlike scholarly book-readers; they tended to be fashionable men and women who wanted to know what was talked about in society but had only a small amount of time to absorb it.

By the time commercial operas became the rage in Venice, avvisi and newssheets were being sold on every street corner in Europe, and some of them included reports about the audiences who attended operas and the aristocrats who had written them. Only a few avvisi have survived to be studied, because they were intention- ally ephemeral documents, printed or written on poor quality paper, and designed to be thrown away after use.

Nevertheless, there is one collection dating from that mentions opera performances. Pompeo Molmenti records a French ambassador who advised a friend that: you must not think that with ambassadors it is wise to be vigilant about this , ministersfromforeign lands must not enter into a relationship with magis- trates; one must speak through third parties, or speak by signals at the opera, a circumstance that makes attending shows and the use of masks necessary to foreign ministers Molmenti ,n2. When he was made Commissioner-General under Louis XIII, he tried various methods of decreasing poverty and beggary in Paris; the Gazette de France was his most successful effort in this regard.

His idea was to insert advertising supplements into the paper and small advertisements mixed in with the news that would pay for the publication and allow him to lower the cost of the paper, making it affordable to all. Thanks to this single idea, his circulation rose to 12, by In January , another new and extremely influential periodical appeared in Paris.

From the point of view of operatic history, it is more valuable than any other single journal for developing an understanding of Venetian opera in the seventeenth-century. In its time, Le Mercure galant was widely read because it was the official publication of the French royal court. Its influence on aristocratic French life, and by extension, the aristo- cratic life of all of Europe cannot be overstated, as it was published at court, and was clearly an instrument of political propaganda Smith , Beginning in August , there was a great deal of coverage of music of all sorts, and the discussion was much more detailed and important than ever before.

The initially anonymous Venetian correspondent wrote thirty pages in the form of a letter addressed to an anonymous "Madame" on the subject of the new operas in Venice, including names of librettists, composers, and vivid descriptions of the music and the theatrical machinery.

Two years later, he wrote a series of articles on the San Salvatore theatre, on the opening of the lavish San Giovanni Grisostomo theatre, including the premiere of Pallavicino's inaugu- ral II Vespasiano, complete with a reprint of an aria from Pallavicino's IlNerone, his second work at the same theatre. In and , the author signed the name Chassebras de Cramailles to a series of letters to Le Mercure galant, listing all the new operas performed during Carnevale.

He provided a remarkably detailed description of the sump- tuous San Giovanni Grisostomo theatre, commenting that "large theatres are destined for the operas that the nobles or others have made and composed at their own expense, more for their own entertainment than for the profit that they make from them, since ordinarily the latter does not make up half of the outlay. It was never mentioned in the Giornale de ' Letterati d'Italia Venice, though, suggesting that it was not a major force in moulding public opinion.

Neverthe- less, its contents may have reflected l'air du temps. The presumed superiority of Venetian opera in Pallade Veneta is interesting to note because it was precisely at this time that Naples and Paris were challenging Venice operati- cally for the first time.

The tone adopted by Pallade Veneta may well reflect the beginning of the problem with eighteenth century opera: the sense of complacency coupled with an urgent demand for new operas, fuelled the tendency to create operas that seem formulaic. Instead, they seem to have happened at the same time, reflecting the need in European society for increased publicity in daily life. Thus, I contend that these works were not necessarily popular because of the quality of the operas themselves, but at least partly because people were convinced, by means of various kinds of advertis- ing, promotion and journalistic "buzz," to await them before they knew anything about them.

It is therefore not impossible that the value of publicity or promotion was recognised as a valuable force even in the seventeenth-century. There is, after all, a tendency in humans to confuse what we know or what we have been told—what we think we know—with what we like.

Nevertheless, more than three hundred years after an event, what remains of these events cannot hope to recreate what the audience at the time experienced. The fame of scenic designers like Giacomo Torelli, or singers like Anna Renzi, demonstrates this contention. The wealth of visual effects, ma- chinery, sets, lighting, transcendent singing by thezyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTS prima donne and uomini can no longer have the effect on us that they had on their first audiences, and the relics we use to study these operas, the narrative and the music were always intended to be secondary to the spectacle.

If the quality of these works were the sole criterion for their popularity, then the low-budget operas of Francesco Santurini should have failed both from a critical and popular perspective, given the shabbiness Ivanovich attributes to the sets, the costumes, the machinery, and the talents of the singers. At least from a critical perspective, they did not fail; Santurini knew what audiences could overlook in making a more inexpen- sive and accessible product. He expressed a worldview through his produc- tions, just as the editors of the avvisi expressed theirs, and a worldview expressed publicly is a form of institutional influence.

Santurini capitalized on free publicity. Before commercial opera appeared, printed publicity had seldom, if ever been used to attract audiences to musical events; commedia dell'arte sold tickets and even produced their own publicity materials, but this was entertain- ment of a slightly different type, and decidedly lower class entertainment, as understood by the early modern Venetian.

Despite the fact that it was enter- tainment from a different part of society, many of opera's methods of attracting audiences were borrowed from the commedia dell'arte, transferred to the medium most attractive to the middle and upper classes: journalism. It seems more than mere coincidence that the newspaper—a commercial form of institutional influence—appeared at the same time that commercial opera was exerting a similar kind of influence over what would come to be 84For more on this, see Pirrotta , These two forms of commu- nication—newspapers and opera—are similar in many ways, and they have a symbiotic relationship as well: newspapers needed news and operas were news.

On the other hand, operas needed audiences, and awisi, journals, accademia publications, and newspapers helped to create an air of the extraordinary to attract audiences. If Venice at Carnevale was a sort of proto-Disneyland, then commercial opera was the greatest attraction of this Early Modern amusement park. Like all amusement parks though, its existence depended upon a sense of heightened reality: if people do not come or do not have fun, the mystique disappears.

Even in the seventeenth-century, it was difficult to remain fashionable, and it took the power of the great propagandists of the day to create the mythology of the most magnificent opera house in Venice, the Grimani theatre San Giovanni Grisostomo. Chassebras de Cramailles, the perhaps unwitting spin-doctor of Venetian opera for Le Mercure galant, described it most beautifully in these terms: [The SS Giovanni Grisostomo theatre is] the most beautiful and the most luxurious in the city.

Five ranges of opera boxes, one upon the other, thirty-one in each range ring the auditorium. They are decorated with sculpted ornaments in gilded bas-relief, representing different sorts of antique vases, shells, roses, rosettes, flowers, leaves and other enrichments.

Under and between each of the opera boxes are various human figures made ofwhite marble, also in relief, and as large as life, holding up the pillars that separate the boxes The ceiling is painted depicting a gallery, and at one end is the coat of arms of the Grimani [the theatre's owners], beneath which is Glory surrounded by various divini- ties and children, and a garland offlowers.

One hour before the show begins, the tableau of Venus on the ceiling retracts, and a chandelier with four fourteen-foot gold and silver branches descends. It contains a great coat of arms of Grimani family with a crown of fleurs-de-lis and pearl encrusted rays beneath. The chandelier boasts four grand candelabras with white wax that light up the room and continue burning until the curtain is raised and when this happens, it all vanishes and returns to its previous state.

When the show is over, this machine reappears to illuminate the spectators and to give them means to leave without confusion. Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo, , San Cassiano,? La Didone, , San Cassiano, Miloco 5. Lafintapazza, January 14, , Teatro Novissimo, Surian 6. Bellerofonte, , Teatro Novissimo, Surian 7. Alcate, after February 13, , Teatro Novissimo,? La coronatione di Poppea, ?

Egisto, , San Cassiano, Miloco II Prencipe giardiniero, before Dec. Deidamia, before January , Novissimo, Leni e Vecellio Gli acidenti del vitorioso Goffredo, , Santi Apostoli, Valvasense Eritrea, , San Apollinare,? Erismena, , San Apollinare,? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bianconi, Lorenzo, and Giorgio Pestelli. Opera Production and its Resources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bianconi, Lorenzo, and Thomas Walker.

Biggi, Maria Ida. Fano: Fondazione Cassa di Rispar- mio di Fano. Giacomo Torelli and Baroque Stage Design. Cipolla, Carlo. Debates in Economic History, ed. Brian Pullan, London: Methuen. Giazotto, Remo. Glixon, Beth, and Jonathan Glixon. Glover, Jane. Ivanovich, Cristoforo. Memorie teatrali di Venezia. Norbert Dubowy. Roma: Libreria Musicale Italiana. Lane, Frederic C.

Venice: A Maritime Republic. Paris: A. Logan, Oliver. New York: Scribner, London: B. Mamy, Sylvie. Iteatri del Veneto: Venezia, teatri effemeri e nobili imprenditori. Venice: Corbo e Fiore. Mangini, Nicola. Iteatri di Venezia. Milano: Mursia. Molmenti, Pompeo. Venice: F. Morelli, Giovanni, and Thomas Walker. Maria Teresa Muraro, Florence: Leo S.

Olschki Editore. Papadopoli-Aldobrandini, Nicolo. Le monete di Venezia descritte ed illustrate. Venice: Tipografia Libraria Emiliana. Pirrotta, Nino. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Rigo, Franco. Venezia Le Vie della Posta. Venice: Edizione Grafiche "La Press. Fabrizio Delia Seta, Franco Piperno, Florence: Leo S. Opera in Seventeenth Century Venice. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Saunders, Harris Sheridan Jr. Selfridge-Field, Eleanor.

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By collecting data through your browser, these companies can make money through their advertising partners with targeted ads. We see this same privacy-abusing business model with search engines, email services, and even free mobile apps.

Unless properly configured, most browsers contain lots of private information that can be exploited — or simply collected — by various third parties:. Your IP address will remain exposed and various third parties can still track all of your activities. Here is a headline that illustrates the lengths companies will go to collect your browsing activities.

And even with a locked-down and hardened browser, there may still be exploits that reveal your data and potential identity. For example, Google Chrome announced a severe zero-day flaw that could allow hackers to remotely execute code on affected systems. We discuss some other privacy issues and solutions in our guides on browser fingerprinting and also WebRTC leaks.

There are effective solutions and tools that we will cover in detail below. Additionally, all your activities remain visible to your internet service provider ISP. And as we have recently learned, ISPs log everything you do online and share the data with many other parties. The best way to achieve true privacy while hiding your real IP address and online activities is to use a secure browser together with a good VPN.

This will hide your real IP address and location, while also encrypting and anonymizing your traffic so your ISP cannot see your activities online. Here are our top three recommendations from the best VPN list that we have tested and reviewed:. Conflicting opinions! Just like with Tor , opinions about browser privacy and security can be wildly divergent and contentious.

This guide is not meant to sell everyone on one browser that beats all others. Rather, it is a summary of information about different web browsers that do well with both privacy and security. Choose the best browser for you based on your own unique needs and threat model. Brave is arguably the most secure browser with simple, out-of-the-box privacy.

It is a Chromium -based browser that is fast, secure, and privacy-focused by default. It has a built-in ad blocker and browser fingerprinting protection , while also giving you access to numerous add-ons and extensions. The main developer behind Brave is Brandon Eich , who formerly worked for Mozilla. To summarize this browser, Brave is based on open-source Chromium, but configured for more privacy. It does well with its default privacy settings and extra features.

Here is a brief overview:. One of the reasons we like Brave is because it offers simple, out-of-the-box privacy by default. This makes it ideal for those who do not have the time, patience, or know-how for browser customizations and tinkering. Brave can also be used with Chrome extensions, making it an ideal alternative for Chrome.

Tor network — Brave also has a feature that allows you to access the Dark web by simply opening a new window with Tor. We discuss this feature in our guide on how to access the Dark web safely. As one example of these innovations, Brave is currently developing a private search engine called Brave Search.

Additionally, Brave continues to improve and innovate with its browser, which is growing in popularity. Firefox is a great all-around browser for privacy and security. It offers strong privacy protection features, many customization options, excellent security, and regular updates with an active development team. The newest version of Firefox is fast and lightweight with many privacy customization options.

Out of the box, Firefox is not the best for privacy, but it can be customized and hardened, and we show you exactly how in our Firefox privacy modifications guide. Another great benefit with Firefox is the ability to use numerous browser extensions that can enhance your privacy and security. If you want to keep using older add-ons that are no longer supported by the latest Firefox release, you can go with the Firefox Extended Support Release ESR.

If you want a privacy-focused version of Firefox for Android, you could try Firefox focus. For additional customization and privacy settings, check out our Firefox privacy guide. Next up we have the Tor browser. The Tor browser is a hardened version of Firefox that is configured to run on the Tor network. By default, the Tor Browser is a secure browser that protects you against browser fingerprinting , but it also has some disadvantages.

Because it uses the Tor network, which routes traffic over three different hops, download speeds with the Tor browser can be quite slow. The default version may also break some sites due to script blocking. There are also many websites that block IP addresses originating from the Tor network.

See the pros and cons of Tor here. Another option is to use the Tor browser with the Tor network disabled. Additionally, you can simply run a VPN in the background. Ungoogled Chromium is an open source project to provide a Chromium browser, without the Google privacy issues:. It also features some tweaks to enhance privacy, control, and transparency almost all of which require manual activation or enabling.

Unlike other Chromium forks that have their own visions of a web browser, ungoogled-chromium is essentially a drop-in replacement for Chromium. Bromite is a Chromium -based browser for Android only no desktop support. It comes with some great features by default, including ad blocking and various privacy enhancements. Here are some highlights of this browser from the official Bromite website :. Another cool feature I like with Bromite is that you can use custom ad block filters — learn more here.

Bromite is under active development and remains a great browser for Android users. The DuckDuckGo privacy browser is a new addition to our lineup. This browser is available for mobile devices on iOS and Android and comes with lots of privacy-focused features by default.

This browser is now available on both the Google Play and Apple stores. Below are a few private and secure browsers that are worth mentioning. However, these browsers did not quite make the cut to be recommended, for various reasons listed below. Waterfox is a fork of Firefox that was maintained by just one person for many years. In February , news blew up on reddit that it had sold out to a pay-per-click ad company called System1.

The news was also picked up by others, which resulted in Waterfox and System1 formally announcing the acquisition but only after the news broke. The problem here is the apparent contradiction of an ad company that relies on data collection owning a privacy-focused browser.

As I previously reported, System1 also acquired a stake in Startpage , the private search engine based in The Netherlands. You can be the judge. Pale Moon is another open-source fork of Firefox, which aims for efficiency and customization. In testing out Pale Moon, it does offer different customization options, as well as support for older Firefox add-ons and its own lineup of add-ons.

Pale Moon is currently available on Windows and Linux, with other operating systems in development. Unlike other Firefox forks, Pale Moon runs on its own browser engine , Goanna , which is a fork of Gecko used by Firefox. This is an older engine that was previously used by Firefox, but has long since been replaced. Many argue that this older codebase is a security vulnerability. Here are the privacy-protection features listed from the IceCat page:. This can expose IceCat users to security vulnerabilities, which is why we are no longer recommending it.

Like Brave, Iridium is a secure browser that is based on Chromium and configured for more privacy by default. Iridium Browser is based on the Chromium code base. All modifications enhance the privacy of the user and make sure that the latest and best secure technologies are used. Automatic transmission of partial queries, keywords and metrics to central services is prevented and only occurs with the approval of the user.

In addition, all our builds are reproducible and modifications are auditable, setting the project ahead of other secure browser providers. While some browsers claim to be secure against vulnerabilities, they might not be the best choice from a privacy perspective. Google Chrome is by far the most popular browser. Then add a reference and point it to the dll in the folder. This is not a blog entry request, but I could not find any contact links on your blog and I did not want to go off-topic in your regular posts.

You seem to conclude there is no fix, but I actually stumbled upon a hotfix from MS that may correct the unwanted behaviour. I am posting the link here, because the site above also lacks a simply way to contact you or the OP. Link to the hotfix:. Thanks, I appreciate that. We are working with vs but vs could be used to if needed and are using the Crystal Report view tool to show a report.

We used the bootstrapper tool to generate a new entry in the clickonce prerequisites, but the. So we are stuck, in other words, how can you add new software during a clickonce deployment? This allows people in corporate environments to deploy applications without Corporate IT having to worry about there being any impact on other software installed on the machine.

So unfortunately, if you need to install prerequisites that require administrative privileges, you will have to get admin privs assigned to the user temporarily, or have the Powers That Be install the prerequisite for you. Try it on a machine where the viewer is not installed as a prerequisite already, and you will quickly find out if it works. First up thanks for the detailed information!! But we circumvented the problem by adding a link in our program for the users to manually download and install the viewer app themselves.

But all options we tried resulted in not enough rights to install the viewer…. You replied to my question in social. Thank you very much. I answer all questions in the forums for two reasons. I answer a LOT of questions in the forums, but I also work hours or more a week, so sometimes posts fall through the cracks. The universal way to show the version of your application is to have an About screen that the user can view. You might try posting to either the Visual Basic Forum or the C forum , depending on your language of choice.

My request is for a recommendation about the best way to provide redundancy between different ClickOnce servers but all for the same application. MyApp v1. The installation URL is one of the keys of the deployment identification, and if it changes, the user has to uninstall and reinstall the application. My company handles this by pushing our deployment to a CDN that provides access worldwide. You might look into deploying your files to an Azure CDN.

Hi Robin, I found your blog very helpful for clickonce deployment. Actually i am beginner for this feature and facing a problem,i think you can help me out. The above process allows me to install CrystalReport basics for visual studio but gives me a error while installing dotnet framework 3.

I have a question on bringing up application on the number of user profiles on a workstation. If there are fewer profiles, the application comes up pretty quick Howerver if multiple users login and work on the application therefore the workstation has many user profiles , the application is slower in coming up. I am using ClickOnce for my deployments and we intend to use it for production. Any suggestions to avoid this performance issue? NET 3. Take a look at this article and look at section 2.

Hello Robin, great site. Your article about certificates really helped us get ahead with our Clickonce Installation, I am not sure we would have sticked with it would it not be for those articles. Can you help me with two questions:. Hi janveodin, 1 If you are targeting the. It probably depends on your company and your customers. If your customers all know you, and you have verified that they can expect it to say that, they might just let it go.

The company I work for — GoldMail — has thousands of customers around the world, and I think it gives them a sense of security to install something from the internet and have it be signed and assured by Verisign, especially if they work in a corporate environment. It would be more difficult to get our application whitelisted by corporations if we used a test certificate. Unfortunately, for programmatic updates prior to. NET 4, if you are changing the certificate you have to uninstall and reinstall the application.

I am worried by the recent Comodo scandal, I take it you have your from Verisign? Yes, we use Verisign. I think Symantec bought Verisign, for that matter. Who can keep track of these things? You can go from. NET 4 installed. Thank you! NET 4. The bootstrapper in the setup. I am facing an issue with my clickonce application in a win7 bit pc. Now the UI for second instance is not shown.

But i could find the app running in task manager. The only way i could kill that instance is through task manager. It works fine in bit pc. FYI: I am using oracle instant client dlls in my application. The second instance is crashing. I wrote a windows form application in VS using VB, gave it a strong name, compiled and placed onto a network drive.

If I try to run the exe from the network it dies due to permission limitation. If I copy the exe into a local folder, the app works fine. It used to be security wizard in net 1. What should I do to run exe from the network after all pre-requisites installed on users machines? The article is here. The main. Thanks for getting back to me. What I want to do is build one single install that will work on any machine, regardless of bit-ness. So what I am trying to figure out is:.

I can do this with a condition using Windows Installer by telling it to download these DLLs if the target machine is bit or those if it is bit, for example. Or do ClickOnce apps ignore privatePath? It turns out that the new. But they have to be in different folders because they have the same names.

Just put them in separate folders. Then when your application starts up, have it copy whichever ones apply to the main folder. You need the top ones to set your references to, even though they will be replaced before you access them. I hope that makes sense. That sounds pretty good. Yes, I would try that. But hey, you never know, you can try it. Yes you are right.

AccessViolationException: Attempted to read or write protected memory. This is often an indication that other memory is corrupt. But the exception doesnot pop up always. Sometimes it works good for as many instances. I am getting this exception only sometimes. What could be the reason for this. Is this related to any previlege problem?

But still it runs for one instance right? I am guessing here.. The exception occurs since a bit application is trying to run as bit app in a bit PC…But still it works good in a win xp bit PC…Pls provide your thoughts here…. Try these MSDN articles. ClickOnce Overview HowTo publish a clickonce app. For your database, try this article about keeping your data safe from ClickOnce updates. I downloaded the Certificate Expiration.

What password should I use? Did you download the C or the VB version? Oh, found a workaround. I can see inside the zipped file, and copy content out to a normal directory. Thank you for your feedback.

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